• Alaka BasuAlaka Basu
      Alaka M. Basu is Professor, Development Sociology, Cornell University, and a member of the Guttmacher-Lancet Commission on Sexual and Reproductive Rights and Health
      Alessandro RosinaAlessandro Rosina
      Professor of Demography and Director, Center for Applied Statistics in Business and Economics, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore
      Andrea BrandoliniAndrea Brandolini
      Head of Statistical Analysis Directorate, Bank of Italy
      Bruno MasquelierBruno Masquelier
      Professor of Demography, University of Louvain, Belgium
      Cheikh MbackéCheikh Mbacké
      Associate Professor, Sociology department, Laval University
      Cinzia ContiCinzia Conti
      Researcher at Istat, Head of Unit on Foreign Presence and Social Dynamics
      Corrado BonifaziCorrado Bonifazi
      Director of the Institute for Research on Population and Social Policies, National Research Council, Rome Italy
      Ernestina CoastErnestina Coast
      Associate Professor of Population Studies, London School of Economics
      Wang FengFeng Wang
      Professor of Sociology at the University of California, Irvine, USA, and Professor at Fudan University, Shanghai, China fwang(at)
      Francesco BillariFrancesco Billari
      Professor of Sociology and Demography, University of Oxford
      Gilles PisonGilles Pison
      Professor at Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle and Director of Research at the French National Institute for Demographic Studies (INED) (Paris)
      Gustavo De SantisGustavo De Santis
      Professor of Demography, University of Florence, Italy
      Jacques VallinJacques Vallin
      Emeritus Research Director at INED, Paris; Honorary President of IUSSP
      John KnodelJohn Knodel
      Research Professor Emeritus, Population Studies Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan (USA) and International staff, College of Populations Studies, Chulalongkorn University (Thailand)
      Letizia MencariniLetizia Mencarini
      Associate professor of Demography, Bocconi University - Dondena Centre for Research on Social Dynamics and Public Policy & Collegio Carlo Alberto; P.I. ERC P.I. ERC project n. 313617 (2013-2018) SWELLFER
      Letizia TanturriLetizia Tanturri
      Associate Professor of Demography, University of Padova, Italy
      Massimo livi BacciMassimo livi Bacci
      Emeritus Professor of Demography, University of Florence, Italy
      Monica Das GuptaMonica Das Gupta
      Research Professor of Sociology, University of Maryland, USA
      Paula Miranda-RibeiroPaula Miranda-Ribeiro
      Professor, Demography Department and Cedeplar, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil.
      Peter McDonaldPeter McDonald
      Professor of Demography in the Australian National University. Honorary President of IUSSP and winner of the Irene B. Taeuber Award
      Roberto ImpicciatoreRoberto Impicciatore
      Assistant Professor of Demography, University of Milan, Italy
      Salvatore StrozzaSalvatore Strozza
      Professor of Demography, University Federico II, Naples (Italy)
      Stefano MolinaStefano Molina
      Senior Program Officer, Giovanni Agnelli Foundation, Italy
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Majority to minority: the declining U.S. white population
Quand la majorité devient minorité : le cas des blancs aux Etats-Unis

Dudley L. Poston jr., Rogelio Sáenz
minority. two young black boys in new york

In this essay we document the demography of the decline of the white population in the United States, a country with a long history of white supremacy. Despite the fact that the U.S. Constitution and the civil rights legislation of the 1960s guaranteed equality to all people irrespective of race or ethnicity, everyone is far from equal in the United States today. On average, whites are far better off economically and educationally and in many other ways than are minority peoples. Levels of residential segregation by race and ethnicity are still nearly as high as they were decades ago. Yet, the share of the U.S. population that is white has declined over the past six decades from about 90 percent in 1950 to 61 percent in 2016 (table 1) and will likely drop below 50 percent in another 30 years: what once was a majority will become a minority relatively soon, and has already become so in a few states. This fact is an important one because it shows the changing racial structure of the U.S. Schermata 2017-09-09 alle 16.09.25

Donald Trump won the U.S. presidential election by focusing his attention on white people. His campaign slogan, “Make America great again” has been interpreted by some as really meaning, “Make America white again.” But America will never be white again. America is on its way to becoming predominantly nonwhite.

Let us first note that U.S. federal government agencies use two questions to measure race/ethnicity. One asks if the person is of Hispanic origin, and the other asks about the person’s race(s) (Figure 1). A person is defined as white if he or she self-identifies as being white and non-Hispanic. A minority (or nonwhite) individual is “anyone who is not a single-race non-Hispanic white” (Passel et al., 2012; Liebler et al., 2017). Schermata 2017-09-09 alle 16.10.12

First immigrants to the U.S.

Whites were not the first people to settle in what is now the United States. The first immigrants were a people we know today as American Indians and Alaskan Eskimos (also commonly referred to as Native Americans), arriving in North America around 14,000 years ago. When one of the first white explorers, Christopher Columbus, arrived in America in 1492, there were around 10 million Indians living in the lands north of Mexico. But by the 1800s their numbers had dwindled to about one million. They are now the smallest race group in the U.S. (Poston and Bouvier, 2017).

The first sizeable stream of immigrants to the U.S. were whites from England. The arrival of the pilgrims on Plymouth Rock in 1620 in search of religious freedom marked the start of large waves of whites coming to this land. When the U.S. was established as a country in 1776, whites comprised roughly 80 percent of the population. By 1920, their share had risen to 90 percent, where it stood until 1950 (Poston and Bouvier, 2017).

Whites and minorities in the U.S.

The portion of whites in the U.S. population has declined since 1950, falling to 76 percent in 1990, 69 percent in 2000, 64 percent in 2010, and 61 in 2016—the lowest percentage ever recorded (U.S. Census Bureau, 2017).

Although the majority of the U.S. population today is still white (meaning, we repeat, both white and non-Hispanic), nonwhites account for more than half of the population of Hawaii, the District of Columbia, California, New Mexico, Texas and Nevada. Over the next 10 to 15 years, these half dozen majority-minority states (i.e. where racial or ethnic minorities make up a majority of the population) will likely be joined by as many as eight other states where whites now make up less than 60 percent of the population (Table 1). Census Bureau projections show that the United States will be majority-minority by 2050 (Colby and Ortman, 2015). We project this will occur around 2044. Indeed, by as soon as 2020 in the U.S. there will be fewer white than nonwhite children (U.S. Census Bureau, 2017). Schermata 2017-09-09 alle 16.11.26

The nonwhite (minority) population is growing much more rapidly than the white population. Indeed, minorities accounted for 92 percent of the U.S. population growth between 2010 and 2016, with Latinos (also referred to as Hispanics) making up just under half of the nation’s overall growth (U.S. Census Bureau, 2017).

The demography of the declining white population

Why are the numbers of white people declining, and why are nonwhites increasing? The answer is basic demography—births, deaths and immigration. Let us consider each of these demographic components.

White women have an average of 1.7 children over their lifetimes compared to Latina women averaging 2.2 (Poston and Bouvier, 2017). The total fertility rates (TFRs) of blacks, Asians and American Indians are in between. Thus, whites have fewer births compared to nonwhites.

Not only are there major differences between whites and minorities in their TFRs, there are also big differences in age structure. While 62 percent of Latinas 15 years of age or older are in the childbearing ages (15-44), only 42 percent of white women are in this age group (U.S. Census Bureau, 2017).

How about mortality? Latinos have lower mortality rates than whites; this is known as the epidemiological (or Latino) paradox (Sáenz and Morales, 2012). But the contrary is true for blacks and American Indians who have higher mortality rates than whites (Poston and Bouvier, 2017). Still, because of their older age structure, whites accounted for 78 percent of all U.S. deaths occurring in 2015 (Center for Disease Control, 2017). Indeed, there were more white deaths than white births in 17 states in 2014, including California, Florida, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Arizona, and Massachusetts (Sáenz and Johnson, 2016).

How about immigration to the U.S.? Of the more than 43 million foreign-born persons living in the U.S. in 2015, 82 percent originated in Latin America and Asia. Only 11 percent were born in Europe (Table 2).

The future of whites in the U.S.

The United States is undergoing major changes in its racial structure resulting from demographic differences between whites and nonwhites. The aging white population, alongside a more youthful minority population, especially in the case of Latinos, will result in the U.S. becoming a majority-minority country in about 2044. This transformation is already underway in certain states and will gather pace in the next 10 to 15 years.

This demographic shift in the United States has resulted in many whites proclaiming that they are losing their country, and that they already are, or will soon become, a minority group. Certainly Donald Trump has capitalized on this sentiment and has further given license to his supporters to express their racism and hatred toward people of color (another term for nonwhites) through his own words and actions.

White supremacy is a powerful system that has created and perpetuated racial inequality in the United States (Bonilla-Silva, 2014). For example, following the end of slavery in 1865, the Jim Crow system was established to separate blacks from whites and to keep blacks at the bottom of the stratification system (Feagin, 2013). In addition, after the passage of civil rights legislation in the 1960s, whites used the court system to dismantle the socioeconomic and political gains of minorities and established massive incarceration that disproportionately ensnared blacks and Latinos in prisons (Alexander, 2012).

While whites will become a numerical minority in the coming decades, they will maintain their dominant position socioeconomically and politically. The massive economic resources and political power that whites have amassed will not erode as their numbers wane. In fact, as people of color have increased their numbers, the white political machinery is already working to minimize the political power of nonwhites via such political ploys as gerrymandering (drawing political districts in ways that disadvantage people of color) and voter identification laws that thwart the political representation of groups of color.


Alexander, Michelle. 2012. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. New York: The New Press.

Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo. 2014. Racism without Racists: Color-blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in America. 4th ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Center for Disease Control. 2017. Underlying Causes of Deaths, 1999-2015 Request. CDC WONDER. Accessed online at on July 31, 2017.

Colby, Sandra L. and Jennifer M. Ortman. 2015. “Projections of the Size and Composition of the U.S. Population: 2014 to 2060.” Current Population Reports P25-114 (March). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau.

Feagin, Joe R. 2013. Racist America: Roots, Current Realities, and Future Reparations. 3rd ed. New York: Routledge.

Frey, William H. 2017. “Census Shows Nonmetropolitan America Is Whiter, Getting Older, and Losing Population: Will It Retain Political Clout?” Washington, D.C.: Brookings, The Avenue (June 27):

Liebler C.A., S.R. Porter, L.E. Fernandez, J.M. Noon, S.R. Ennis. 2017. “Think race and ethnicity are permanent? Think again.” Neodemos, 26 June

Passel, Jeffrey S., Gretchen Livingston, and D’Vera Cohn. 2012. “Explaining Why Minority Births Now Outnumber White Births.” Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center, Social and Demographic Trends (May 17):

Poston, Dudley L., Jr. and Leon F. Bouvier. 2017. Population and Society: An Introduction to Demography. 2nd Edition. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Sáenz, Rogelio, and Kenneth M. Johnson. 2016. “White Deaths Exceed Deaths in One-Third of U.S. States.” Carsey Research, National Issue Brief # 110, Fall, 2016.

Sáenz, Rogelio and Trinidad Morales. 2012. “The Latino Paradox.” Pp. 47-73 in R.R Verdugo

(ed.), The Demography of the Hispanic Population: Selected Essays. Charlotte, NC:

Information Age Publishing.

U.S. Census Bureau. 2014. Through the Decades, History: Index of Questions. Washington,

D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

U.S. Census Bureau. 2017. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population by Sex, Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin for the United States and States: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016. Accessed at on July 30, 2017.
















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